Other Capsicum varieties

 

The chile pepper species list

 

...In 1680, there were 33 species of chile pepper in the first list that appeared in the published study 'Plantarum Historiae Universalis Oxoniensis', by Robert Morrison. The uncultivated "wild" species, that are still being classified at present include the following:


Capsicum anomalum 
Omitted from Capsicum species list in 1983 by Eshbaugh. A wild variety of pepper from Japan. This isn't a true Capsicum, rather it is a member of the Turbocapsicum genus. According to the USDA-ARS GRIN database; Plants 1.0m tall, growing in shade. Branches numerous. Leaves long, elliptical and glabrous. Flowers in umbels, with 2-5 per umbel. Corolla short, bell-shaped and yellow. Fruit round, 1.0cm and red at maturity.

 

    Turbocapsicum anomalum 
is a perennial, glabrescent, to 1.5 m tall. Stems terete at base, drying ridged, branching dichotomously. Petiole 1-3 cm; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, or ovate-lanceolate, 5-18 Π3-10 cm, papery, base obtuse, margin subentire, apex acuminate or obtuse; veins arcuate. Inflorescences solitary or up to 12-flowered clusters. Pedicel 1-2 cm, nodding, slightly thicker distally. Calyx cup-shaped, 2-2.5 Π3 mm, truncate. Corolla bright yellow, short campanulate, 5-8 Π6-8 mm; lobes ovate-deltate, recurved, 2-3.5 mm, minutely ciliolate. Filaments ca. 0.5 mm; anthers ca. 1.8 mm. Style 2.5-3 mm. Fruiting calyx not enlarged. Berry shiny, scarlet, 0.8-1.2 cm. Seeds pale yellow, discoid, 1-1.5 mm across. Fl. Aug-Oct, fr. Sep-Nov. Mesophytic sites in forests or open places; various elevations. Found in Chinese provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang, as well as in Indonesia, Japan including Ryukyu Islands, Korea, Philippines, Thailand. Known as Long Zhu/Chi Zhu (in Chinese) and False pepper/Chinese false pepper/Japanese false pepper (in English).

 

Capsicum breviflorum 
Omitted from Capsicum species list in 1983 by Eshbaugh.

Capsicum brasilianum 
No information.

Capsicum buforum 
Found in Brazil. (A.T.Hunziker)

Capsicum campylopodium 
Found in southern Brazil. (Sendt)

Capsicum cardenasii 
This is a different looking pepper plant with very small leaves, wispy branches and long tubular purple flowers. The pod is 1cm diameter sphere and ripens from dark green to red. Believed to be found only around La Paz, Bolivia. Genetically part of taxa including Capsicum pubescens. Common name: Ulupica. Known to be susceptible to Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus. Very hot. Classified under USDA #573336.

 


C. cardenasii flower © Fatalii's Chiles

 

Capsicum chacoense 
Believed to be found only in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. A white flowered species. Known to be susceptible to Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus. Locally known as 'Tova' in Paraguay. According to the USDA-ARS GRIN database; plant is erect, approximately 80 cm tall. Flowers small, white, without spots, anthers yellow with wings at the base of the filaments. Fruits erect, elongated, triangular, 2.5 cm long, 0.5 cm wide, green turning to red at maturity, piquant. Very scarce. USDA #439414 

 

    
C. chacoense flower and pod © Mats & Patricia Pettersson

 

    Capsicum chacoense var. exile

 

    Capsicum chacoense var. tomentosum
From A.T.Hunziker.

 

Capsicum chinense Jacquin 
Believed to be found only in Latin and South America.

Capsicum ciliatum
Omitted from Capsicum species list in 1983 by Eshbaugh. Synonym for Witheringia ciliata.

 


C. ciliatum flower © Fatalii's Chiles

 

Capsicum chlorocladium 
From De Candolle.

Capsicum coccineum
Believed to be found only in Bolivia and Peru. A white flowered species.

Capsicum cordiforme 
A synonym for Capsicum annuum. Common names includes Pimiento, Bell pepper, Cayenne pepper, Common garden pepper, Green pepper, Mango pepper and Paprika pepper. Susceptible to Pepper hausteco bigeminivirus, Pepper Indian mottle polyvirus, Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus, Pepper Moroccan tombusvirus, Pepper mottle polyvirus, Pepper ringspot tobravirus, Pepper severe mosaic polyvirus, Pepper Texas bigeminivirus and Pepper veinal mottle polyvirus.

Capsicum cornutum 
Believed to be found only in southern Brazil.

Capsicum dimorphum
Believed to be found only in Colombia.

Capsicum dusenii 
Believed to be found only in south-east Brazil.

Capsicum exile 
Not commercially grown, several chile-heads have successfully grown the cultivar 'Cobincho'. This plant is very unlike most other capsicums. It branches out very heavily and the branches themselves are unusually thin. Grows over 130 cm tall and requires support. The leaves are small, smooth, and in the beginning are heart-shaped. The flowers are very small (about 7 mm), and are bright white with stamens which are yellow. The fruit are oval, ca. 8mm long, and mature from green to dark violet to red. Heat-level is about 7.

 


C. exile flower of cultivar "Cobincho" © Tommi Hietavuo 

 

Capsicum eximium 
Believed to be found only in Bolivia and northern Argentina. Said to be a wild relative of the Rocoto. Genetically part of taxa including Capsicum pubescens. A purple flowered species with white to purple corolla and light coloured seeds. Known to be susceptible to Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus. Said to grow like a small tree.

 

    
C. eximium pod and flower © Mats & Patricia Pettersson

 

    Capsicum eximium var. tomentosum
is a very distinctive sub-species that may be classified later with a separate species status.

 

Capsicum fasciculatum 
Believed to be Capsicum frutescens var. fasciculatum.

Capsicum fastigiatum 
Synonym for Capsicum frutescens. Recognised by United States Pharmacopoeia and the British Pharmacopoeia.

Capsicum flexuosum 
Treated as variety of Capsicum schottianum by A.T. Hunziker. 

 


C. flexuosum pods © Botanical and Experimental Garden of the Radboud University of Nijmegen

 


C. flexuosum flower © Fatalii's Chiles

 

Capsicum galapagoense 
Believed to be found only as a wild chile native to Isabela Island & Santa Cruz Island (2 of the Galapagos Islands), Ecuador. A white flowered species that grows to 0.25 inches long. dark green maturing to red. Very hot. USDA #GRIF1567

 


C. galapagoense flower © Fatalii's Chiles

 

Capsicum geminifolium 
Believed to be found only in Colombia and Ecuador.

Capsicum hookerianum 
Believed to be found only in Ecuador.

Capsicum lanceolatum 
Believed to be found only in Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico.

 


C. lanceolatum flower © Fatalii's Chiles

 

Capsicum leptopodum 
Believed to be found only in Brazil.

Capsicum luteum 
Seeds known to be kept at Botanical Garden of Nijmegen.

Capsicum microcarpum 
Synonyms for Capsicum baccatum var. baccatum and Capsicum frutescens var. baccatum. Common names: Cayenne pepper, Aji and Peruvian pepper. Known to be susceptible to Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus.

Capsicum minimum 
Synonym for Capsicum frutescens. Common names include Bird pepper, Cayenne pepper, Chili pepper, Tabasco pepper and Aji. Susceptible to Pepper Indian mottle polyvirus, Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus, Pepper mottle polyvirus, Pepper severe mosaic polyvirus, Pepper veinal mottle polyvirus and Serrano golden mosaic bigeminivirus.

 

    Capsicum minimum Blanco 

 

Capsicum minutiflorum 
Believed to be found only in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. Synonym of Bassovia minutiflorum.

Capsicum mirabile 
Believed to be found only in southern Brazil.

Capsicum parvifolium 
Believed to be found only in north-east Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela.

Capsicum pendulum 
Synonym for Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

Capsicum praetermissum 
This variety grows to six feet tall in a single growing season and has thousands of cranberry sized fruit that ripen to red. The flowers are totally flat when fully opened, are purple edged with a white inner band and have a greenish yellow center. The ripe fruits are said to be very seedy. Sold commercially in parts of Brazil. Also known as Capsicum baccatum var. praetermissum . Designated as a separate species since at least before 1983, according to the UN/FAO (Genetic Resources of Capsicum, International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, 1983 [Crop Genetic Resources Centre, Plant Production and Protection Division, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations]) Known to be susceptible to Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus. USDA #441654.

 


C. praetermissum flower © Mats & Patricia Pettersson

 


C. praetermissum pod © Tommi Hietavuo 

 

Capsicum schottianum 
Believed to be found only in Argentina, south Brazil and south-east Paraguay. According to the USDA-ARS GRIN database; Plants are erect, 80-100 cm tall with branches in zig zag pattern. Flowers are white with yellow-green spots at the base of the petals. Fruits are pendulous and reddish-orange at maturity. Leaves are slightly pilose.

 

    Capsicum schottianum var. flexuosum

 

Capsicum scolnikianum 
Believed to be found only in Peru.

Capsicum sinensis 
Known to be insusceptible to Potato U nepovirus

Capsicum stramonifolium 
Recognised by the USDA. Found in Panama. Synonym of Witheringia stramonifolia [Kunth].

Capsicum tetragonum 
Common name for Hungarian Cayenne and Paprika chiles.

Capsicum tovarii 
Believed to be found only in Rio Mantaro basin in south-central Peru, in low montane xerophytic zone, (native to lower dry mountains). Genetically part of taxa including Capsicum pubescens. 
A purple flowered species. Plants to 1m tall, perennial. Suffrutescent, stems diffuse or clambering, sympodially branched. Leaves deciduous, alternate, ovate-lanceolate (trullate when young), 3.5-8.2 x 1.5-3.8 cm, venation pinnate (brochidodromous), blade glabrous to sparsely pubescent above, sparsely pubescent below, villous in axils of veins beneath, apex acuminate to attenuate, margins entire, with uniseriate strigillose trichomes, base attenuate; petiole slightly channelled, 1-3 cm long. Inflorescence composed of axillary compound dichasia. Flowers functionally unisexual or bisexual, actinomorphic; calyx tube cup-like, 1.3-1.9 x 1.8-2.6 mm, membranous between lobes, teeth 5, variable, 0-1.3 mm long, glabrous to puberulent; corolla purple and cream or cream marked with 2 green spots at base of each lobe, campanulate, 4.4-8.5 mm broad, lobes with or without an apical claw, margins of lobes variously papillate. Stamens 5, epipetalous, alternating with the corolla lobes, anther sacs (thecae) parallel, extrorse, dorsifixed; ovary bicarpellate, 0.9-2.6 x 0.9-1.5 mm; style apical, heteromorphic, 1.5-7.6 mm long, stigma clavate or 2-4 lobed; ovules 4-8 per ovary, anatropous. Fruit is a pungent red globose berry, 4.4-7.6 x 4.2-7.3 mm, pedicel 1-2 cm long. Seeds 3.5-4.5 mm long, cream coloured, striate to reticulate, minutely tuberculate, auriform. (Chromosomes n=12). Flowering in May.

 


C. tovarii flower © Fatalii's Chiles

 

Capsicum villosum 
Believed to be found only in southern Brazil; Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina and Sao Paulo.

 

    Capsicum villosum var. muticum 

 

    Capsicum villosum var. villosum 

 

Capsicum violaceum 
From Kunth. Recognised by the USDA [PI 77331]. Synonym of Capsicum pubescens [Ruiz & Pav]. 

 

Ego!

 

My thanks to the PBS organisation in the USA for the following review:

 

Reviewed site: Capsicum Variety Database

This amazing site has a history of chili peppers, chili recipes, information on canning, freezing, drying and cooking, Scoville heat index, a FAQ plus a fantastic chili pepper database complete with  photographs. This site is a must-visit for scientists and fans of fiery foods.